Yes and No, for hiking moderately steep terrain you can use ordinary hiking boots with strap-on crampons. Strap-on crampons like the Black Diamonds Contact Strap Crampons or Grivel G-10 New-Classic Crampons.
That being said, if you're doing any sort of winter mountaineering, you'll want to be using a mountaineering boot to keep your feet warmer (a three season hiking boot just does not have enough insulation for winter hiking)
Certain crampons (i.e. fully automatic & fully rigid) will only fit on to mountaineering boots (or ski boots). If you're climbing or ice climbing then you will want to use a mountaineering boot w/ crampons.